The PTS Pali-English dictionary relates the Pali word madhuka to the tree Bassia longifolia, better known today by the alternative scientific name of Madhuca longifolia. Madhuka is a fast growing tropical tree to 20 metres, found in the central and north Indian plains and forests.
According to the PTS Pali-English Dictionary, the Pali word kapiṭṭha (or kaviṭṭha) refers to the tree Feronia elephantum, better known today by the alternative scientific name of Limonia acidissima. The tree is known by a variety of popular names including wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit. A large tree growing to 9 metres, kapiṭṭha has a wide variety of culinary and practical uses.
Sagala is an ancient name for the modern city of Sialkot in northern Punjab, Pakistan. In ancient times Sagala was the capital of the Indo-Greek King Menander during his reign from 160 to 135 BCE. Literary accounts suggest that Greek and local Indian populations in cities like Sagala lived in relative harmony, with some of the local residents adopting the responsibilities of Greek citizenship, while many Greeks converted to Buddhism and adopted local traditions.
Pali is a northern Indian language which has been in continuous use in one form or another for approximately 2500 years. Originally a mainly spoken vernacular language, it eventually evolved into one of the most important and influential literary languages in the world.